Understanding how these tiny fluctuations were created during the earliest stages in the evolution of the universe, and explaining their magnitude and shape, is an equally fascinating mystery in cosmology.
Using this fact, we can relate the numerical value of the cosmological constant to the energy scale at which the universe made a transition from the quantum gravitational phase to the classical phase.
This transition energy scale, in turn, can be related to the second enigmatic feature of our universe: the magnitude of the tiny quantum fluctuations in the early universe that grew to form the galaxies and galaxy clusters that we see today.
The popular procedure for calculating the size of these fluctuations is to use inflationary models of the universe, which describe the early universe as going through an enormous and rapid increase in size.
Our model allows us to relate both the numbers-the numerical value of the cosmological constant and the size of the primordial fluctuations-to the energy scale at which the pre-geometric universe went through a phase transition and became the classical universe we all live in.
We believe ours is the first effort to link the numerical value of the cosmological constant to the size of the fluctuations in the early universe, and the first to obtain both these numbers from a model which has no adjustable parameters and relates them to the energy scale at which the classical universe came into being.
Incredibly enough this is similar to how our universe behaves.